Initial forms
....summary

 


By Pétur Halldórsson

Introducing a multimedia concept about the cycle of time, the proportions of our universe, the instinctive energy of primitive man.

Developed with the support of the MEDIA program of the European Union

Ancient Europeans had ideas of a land far in the north - ultima Thule.
No one knows who first saw this distant land rise out of the sea on the horizon - with its glaziers, mountains, black sands.Were they Greek or Roman seafarers - ancient explorers?
This mysterious island in the north became a shelter for 7th. century Irish monks, hermits that travelled there in their skin boats - to meditate in the presence of the Divine. Thule was still a hidden land and unknown to most Europeans, but an offshoot from the ancient culture on the continent was already rooting there. A new European country was about to be born. During the 8th century Nordic chieftains - Vikings - traveling between Norway, Scotland and the Faroe islands were driven off course onto its shores. Iceland became settled around the year 870 AD and in the fallowing decades by people from the fjords of Norway and from the Viking settlements on the British Isles. Nordic people and Celts merged into a new European society that built on ancient knowledge (Ó.J.’01).

The roots of Icelandic culture
Not much is known about ancient numerology in the Icelandic Saga´s except for what can be found in the work of the Icelandic researcher Einar Palsson. (1925-1995). His findings can be used as a yardstick to explain many cultural phenomena of the world. Einar discovered a giant cycle in the delta of south Iceland, the “Cycle of Time” carved into the land itself by our forfathers. The diameter of the cycle was 216.000 feet (64 km). This was the symbolic Universe of Ketill Hængur one of the first settlers of Iceland, it was the Norse cosmology of the holy corn god. The myths associated with the cycle are the myths of the corn god inherited from ancient southern cultures where religion ruled everything in life, the origin of which were derived from the instinctive energy of primitive man and the proportions of the universe. The numerology of the Cycle of Time are wholly consistent with the great ages of the Hindus, their numerology and mythology concerning the destruction and rebirth of the world. Einar Palsson´s theory that such cycles were to be found wherever ancient people settled, is the basis for the project introduced here. His collectve works,“The Roots of Icelandic Culture”, is acclaimed by mythologist Joseph Campell as “maybe the single biggest event touching the study of Northern European Mythology of the latter half of the twentieth century”.

Religion, symbology and innate proportions
It is not known how ancient man formulated his thoughts. Ideas passed from generation to generation as folklore for tens even hundreds of years before man learned to write them down. Latest researches reveal the cycles of this project, they seem to be aligned in the same way, attached to the same ideas, same proportions and measured in the same way. They were constructed on the deltas where channels of great rivers had built up sediments for thousands of years, where the land was most fertile, where the animals gathered.

Numerologists researching ancient culture agree that there existed a specific numerical progression of numbers that repeatedly appear in the same context in pagan science; 27 -54 -108 -216 -432 -864 -1782 (zero(s) connected to a number does not change its numerical symbol). The numbers in this context became the sacred numbers of creation in ancient science 1. These numbers are found to be the main numbers of the cosmology introduced here.
It is known that most Icelandic settlers “hallowed the land” before they cultivated it. According to latest discoveries a hallowing involved ceremonies of creation and fixing the cardinal points on the land. According to the concept introduced here, a primitive mind conducting the ceremony of creation, by measuring and marking the cosmology on to the land, recreates in a symbolical way the size of planet Earth and the proportions of its ecliptical path around the Sun.

In this project we delve into ancient science, travel to deepest space and back in time to six exotic places to redescover some of the earliest cosmology on the planet:
The cycle of Rangarhverfi, 216.000 feet in diameter.
The cycle of Denmark, 432.000 feet in diameter.
The cycle of Somerset, England, 216.000 feet in diameter.
The cycle of Paris, France, 216.000 feet in diameter.
The cycle of St. Peters Basilica in Rome, 216 feet in diameter and to
the cycle of Egypt on the Nile Delta, 216 minutes of Earths circumference in diameter.

What thoughts stirred the mind of primitive man as he first contemplated the movement of the starry sky or of those who first counted on fingers of one hand the number of animals in a hunt? Symbolic paintings have been found, 60 thousand years old, where man scratched crosses on stones and sprayed pictures of animals and palm prints of five fingers, on cave walls. Early in man’s encounter with the chaotic nature of Earth, led him to develope a practical religion to calm the turmoil in his mind, such as fear of loss or of natural disasters. Religion became intertwined with everything in his life and developed as a tool to harness chaos, the land. -Order reigned in the celestial sphere, man got his bearings. He began to mark the ordered cosmology on to the land. It was of a certain size, measured precisely by a surveyor walking in certain directions guided by forsight and backsight. The timing and direction of the survey was guided by the heavenly bodies. When the surveyor had walked/measured the land and finished the work, which could take years to complete, the new land was tamed and ready for habitation. Man created cosmos out of chaos. His cosmology covered the land as far as the eye could see. Hills and stones, mountains and cliffs now had a special role as reference points and markers. Mans cosmology was the mirror image of the celestial sphere. The land measuring ceremony became sacred and the cosmology became tied to the main landmarks, points of the compass and the course of the sun. The cosmology was sacred but at the same time it was a practical sundial for ancient setlers. Correct measures of time and space, death and rebirth became the mainstay of the religion that man inherited.

* In man´s cellular memory survives a 3 billion year experience of the rhythm of the movement of our planet with in the solar system.
*Our solar system is about 5 billion years old. Light from the sun is what fosters life on this planet. Photosynthesis is a chemical reaction where chlorophyll engages the light from the sun to produce organic nourishment from carbon dioxide and water creating and maintaining the atmosphere around the Earth 3. The mobility of cells and their receptivity to light in the conditions on earth 3 - 4 billion years ago developed a light membrane, a precursor to the eye as it is today. The eye, it´s nerves and connec- tions to the brain is among the most complicated organs of the human body. A light membrane, very like the one at the back of the human eye, is not very different from the primitive eye membrane of the first living organisms on Earth that sensed light and movement and therefore had a better chance of surviving and procreating 8. It may be said that in man´s cellular memory, survives a 3 million year experience of the rhythm of the movement of our planet within the solar system.

Planet Earth is 12.756 km. in diameter, its circumference is 40.003,km. It revolves once every 24.2 hours on its axis, it circles the sun in 365.2 days, in 149.600.000 km (108 times the diameter of the sun P.H.) distance from it. The diameter of Earths ellipse around the sun, is 299.200.000 km (216 times the diameter of the sun P.H). The suns diameter is 1.400.000 km 2. The characteristics of primitive religions are mainly ideas about the cycle of time, night and day and the seasons of the year. The celestial sky and the passage of time are the main points of reference. The sun and its course became particularly sacred. A cross and a circle, a cross and a square became sacred symbols and widespread early in man’s history. Hence the names of God in the Bible, Elohim and Yawhe, translated as “circumference and diameter of a circle”3.

The precision of early measuring
Ancient Egypt in Arabic is al-Misri, meaning to draw lines. Egyptologists agree that the land was formed in accordance with geographical measurements. To express this idea the Egyptians also named their land MR in reference to the triangle 3-4-5, the Pythagorean triangle. The Egyptians believed this triangle to be a basic form in the structure of the Universe and used it brilliantly in building design and in geographical calculations 4.
Life in Egypt revolved around the Nile, the land itself was identified with north and south in accordance with the flow of the river. Time was measured according to the celestial sky and the increase and decrease of the water level of the river. The north -south directions play an important role in the old religion as is evident in the multitude of sacred buildings fixed on a north -south axis 5.
Memphis was the capital of the united Egypt. It was situated at 31º14´E. and 29º 51´ N, at the spot where they believed the center of their land to be. The symbol of the center was at Sokar where the Omphalos rests on a pillar. It is beleved that the Omphalos is a half-orb representing the northern half of Earth.
Modern man is amazed at the remarkable precision of the ancient Egyptian surveying, which was in accordance with the Universal law, as they understood it. For example the length of old Egypt, 106 atur, is not only it´s correct measurement, it is 1/12 of the arc of the meridian, 21,664,375 cubits or 10,002,301 m. According to a modern Heyford survey this distance is 10,002,286 m. The discrepancy within a distance of 1000 km is 15 meters 6.
Sumerian and Roman surveying methods of dividing land are well known. They established the center of an area where a square of a standard dimension was fixed, from there the land was divided up like a chess board. It is believed that the origin of this method is also found in ancient Egyptian geodesi. The prototype is in the star formation of the Pegasus galaxy in the constellation of Pisces where four stars form a square perpendicular to Earth´s meridian. This symbol is known in Egyptian hieroglyphs as a square, either empty or with ripples in it and has been called the “fish pond” among archeologists. This square hieroglyph, empty, like the prototype in the sky, symbolised the creation of the world. This square in the Pegasus galaxy was considered to be the starting point in the mapping of the sky from where the whole world was measured 7.
Along the length of Egypt from north to south, lies its center axis paralell to the Nile. It divides the land, the cosmology and the square down the middle. Four points mark the square; The center of it´s south side at Sokar near Memphis. The pyramids of Giza mark the north-west side. The banks on the Nile on the island of Warraq el Hadr marks the center of the north side and the ruins of ancient Heliopolis mark the north-east corner. Memphis marks the middle of it´s south side. The size of the square is 1/10 of longitude each side. 6 minutes of the circumference of Earth. It is believed that the Egyptians used this square to measure the size of Earth. They adopted as principle that geographic distances are measured by units of 6 minutes and depicted the distance from the equator to the pole as a distance divided into belts at 6 minutes intervals, hence the circumference of Earth a row of 3600 zones with 6 minutes intervals 9.

The size of the king
The art of surveying was held so sacred in ancient Egypt that certain yard-sticks became holy objects. “Maet”, a word that can be translated as truth or justice, was a concept central to Egyptian culture and the main role of the Pharaoh was to be a living embodyment of Maet 10. In European kingdoms the King was the most important concept and was considered an intermediary between men and gods. The “ideological” size of the King was held to be different from that of an ordinary man. In a similar way to Pharaoha being “Maet” Kings were the embodyment of correct measure. In the standard collections of medieval English law there is an old law manuscript from the reign of Aðalstein King of England in 924 - 940 AD, which says:“The Kings girth shall extend from the center:
3 miles, 3 furlongs, 9 acres, 9 feet, 9 palms, 9 barley corns” 11.
Translated to feet these measurements are:

1 mile: 5.280 feet x 3 =  
15.
840
1 furlong: 600 feet x 3 =  
1.
800
1 acre: 66 feet x 9 =  
594
1 feet x 9 =     9
1 palm: 3/4 feet x 9 =     6,1/2
1 corn of barley: 1/3 inch x 9 =     0,1/3
   
18.
249,3/4 feet

 

 

 

 

At the time of the settlement of Iceland the radius of the cycle surrounding the King of Englands place of residence was 18.250 feet, meaning the diameter was 36.500 feet, 1/10 of a longitude, or 6 minutes which is, according to official standards 36.500 feet (108.3 km in this part of the globe 15). The square of the Kings girth is 6 min. of earths circumference each side, precisely the size of the Egyptian “fish pond”. All the six cosmology investigated in this project seem to have this square marked as their center, each side is 6 minutes, it is perpendicular to the meridian, the south side and the sacred center are marked in exactly the same way; the southeast corner, the middle of the south side, the southwest corner, with the actual center of the cosmology marked on the middle of the north side.


The Cube of Creation 6 x 6 x 6 = 216
The numerology of the Jewish Kabbala holds numerological explanations to most aspects of life, everything was symbolized by number according to the Kabbala. Of special interest to the project introduced here are in formations in the Kabala concerning the manifestation of matter in the form of a six sided Cube: ”Light though really threefold, has traditionally also a sevenfold nature. The emanations of the Devine Essence are figured in the Apocalypse as Seven Lamps, which are the Seven Spirits of God, and the seven stars which are the Angels of the Seven Churches. In the scheme of geometric representation, the first emanation of the Absolute is figured as a Cube developed from an original point, which is one of its angles, this is portrayed in its visible aspect of symmetry as a Hexagon with six internal lines radiating from the centre. Theoretically, there is a seventh radius but never more than six are visible because the seventh approaches the eye and unites the central visible point with the eighth point, lying exactly behind it. The six outward points, with their connecting lines, represent the Kosmos, or manifestation of the Divine Power. The seventh, central point is the Divine Source, the revelation of God to man. But the eighth, the invisible original point, is required to complete the figure of the Cube, which is only apprehended by the higher reason. The six again may be held to represent the periods of Creation and the seventh point, the Sabbath rest of God”12.

The Cube 216, symbol of Earth
  It is believed that ancient Egyptians used a square of 6 minutes to measure the circumference of Earth (p.5).
  The Cabalas holiest symbol was the Cube of Creation (6 x 6 x 6= 216).
  In the science of the Greek Philosopher Plato (429-347 B.C.) of the five basic ingredients of the created world, symbolized by the Five Regular Solids, Earth was symbolized by the cube.

The number of Creation 216
  It was the theory of the times that the great cycle of the world was 216 diameters of the sun. Nordisk Kultur, 1936 M.P.Nilson.
  The diameter of Earths Ecliptic path around the Sun is 216 diameters of the Sun.
  The diameter of mans Cosmology in ancient science was 216(000) units of measure.
  Ancient Egyptians believed a man marched a pace of 5 feet in one second 13. = 216000 feet in 12 hours.

The cosmology in the land
To mark the cycle on the land, one begins by finding/constructing a mound -the Primeval Hill, from where all survey lines in the cosmology emanate. In the southwest direction from that hill, where the sun was at its lowest point in the sky during the darkest time of midwinter, was erected a foresight. From the foresight, a line was drawn back through the hill and a “one day walk”, 216.000 feet, northeast to where the sun was at its highest point during midsummer. At the end of that s-w, n-e line was a symbolic place of harvest where the fruits of summer were celebrated. The center point of that line, the 108.000 feet marker, was the sacred center of the cosmology.
Next a line was fixed from the Primeval Hill due east, according to the stars, to a spot where the 108.000 feet marker at the center aligned with the symbolic spring equinox on the cycle, this marked the s-e, n-w line of the cycle. Together with the cardinal points of the compass these lines created the main spokes of the cycle.
Next the sacred cube was measured; 36.500 feet due south from the sacred center to a spot that marked the middle of the south side of the square. From there in each direction 18.250 feet east and west was demarkated the hypothetical Cube 216 (6 x 6 x 6). The “Cube of Creation”. Within the cube was the sacred void of perfect equilibrium, symbol of the forces that hold the manifested world in balance.

The markers of the cosmology in Rangarhverfi
Seen from Steinkross (Stone cross) in the Icelandic cosmology, a new sun starts to rise from behind Bergþórshvoll (the Primeval Hill) after beeing there at its lowest point in she sky in the middle of winter. The hill is the symbol of winter solstice, Christmas in the Christian religion. Steinkross is the sacred center of the cycle.
The line drawn from Berþórshvoll, through Steinkross ends at Stöng (staff) opposite Berþórshvoll on the cycle where the sun rises highest on the sun dial in the middle of summer. Stöng symbolises harvest and procreation. Goðasteinn (Gods stone) is the measuring point for the southeast sector, the place of advent in Christianity. From there, dawn rises over Rangárvellir. A line drawn from Goðasteinn through Steinkross, intersects the cycle where Skálholt now stands. Early Christians in Iceland erected their first church, the church of St.Peter, on this spot. In pagan science this place symbolised spring equinoxes, new growth, in the fields of the deltas of Rangárhverfi.
The symbol of the “creation of Earth” in the form of the Cube 216 (6x6x6) was at the center of the cycle. Standing at the center, at Steinkross, facing south, the hypothetical cube is like an altar situated between the center and the fertile delta land. The north-south axis was a particularly sacred concept as the manifested world revolved around it. In pagan tradition the altar faces south, in the Christian tradition it faces east, probably in celebration of everlasting life as the sun rises there every morning, Christianity gave man everlasting life in the rebirth. According to old Christian numerology the number of the altar was 1728 (12x12x12) 14, it seems that in Christianity the pagan cube of creation 6 x 6 x 6 becomes the Christian cube of the altar 12 x 12 x 12.
The Icelandic cube of creation was marked by four points. Three marked the south side:
Hof (Temple), the farm of one of the first Icelandic settlers, in the southwest corner of the cube.
Helgafell (Holy Mountain), is on the middle of the south side of the cube.
Mt. Þríhyrningur (Triad), is on the southeast corner.
The fourth point, Steinkross, is at the middle of the north side of the cube -the actual center of the Icelandic cosmology. Each side of the cube is 6 minutes of a degree in length, 10.8 km. The cube is a similar concept as the “Cube of Creation” in the Kabbala. The square used to measured the right size of Earth in the science of ancient Egypt.

The diameter of the Cosmology in Iceland is 216.000 feet.

The markers of the cycle and the Cube of Creation in Denmark;
Comparing the ideology and units of measure found in the mysteries of the cycle in Rangárhverfi, Iceland to the history, ideology and units of measure found in Denmark, the paralells to the Icelandic cosmology appeare:
Mandö is the ideological equivalent of Þrídrangur.
Ribe is the ideological equivalent of Berþórshvoll.
Jelling is the ideological equivalent of Steinkross.
Arhus is the ideological equivalent of Stöng.
Fröbjerg at Odense is the ideological equivalent of Goðasteinn.
Trehöje at Skjerne is the ideological equivalent of Skálholt.
Hof is the ideological equivalent of Asbanke.
Helgafell is the ideological equivalent of Lysholt.
Þríhyrningur is the ideological equivalent ofNyhöje.

The Danish system is measured in exactly the same way as the Icelandic one except it is 200% larger; the radius 108.000 feet is 216.000 feet and the diameter 216.000 feet is 432.000 feet. The proportional size of the Danish cosmology is twice the size of the Icelandic one and the altitude of the sun is different because the summer is longer in Denmark than in Iceland.

The diameter of the Cosmology in Denmark is 432.000 feet.

The markers of the cycle and the cube in Somerset, England
Comparing history, numerology and location of the main places of the cosmology in the Brue delta in Somerset, the parallels to the Icelandic system is revealed and the great cycle appeares. The English cycle has the exact same radius and numerology as the Icelandic one.
The cornerstone of the English system, its Þrídrangur, is a mound on the Brue delta called Burrows Mumph.
From were the southwest- northeast axis cuts through Glastonbury Tor, marking the suns lowest point on the cycle, and on through the center, the stone barrow “the Devils Bed and Bolster”, and on until it intersects the great cycle in the middle of the most famous stone ring in the world, Avebury, where the sun is at its highest in midsummer on the great cycle. Avebury is the symbol of harvest.
Marking the cycles southeast sector is the Old Sarum in Salisbury, from where a line is drawn through the center, the Devils Bed and Bolster and on until it cuts the cycle in front of the old cathedral in Bristol.
Ideological parallels of the cycle in Somerset to the Icelandic and the Danish cycle; Burrows Mumph is Þrídrangur (Mandö).
Glastonbury is the ideological equivalent of Bergþórshvoll (Ribe).
The Devils Bed and Bolster is the ideological equivalent of Steinkross (Jelling).
Avebury is the ideological equivalent of Stöng (Arhus).
Old Sarum is the ideological equivalent of Goðasteinn (Fröbjerg).
Bristol is the ideological equivalent of Skálholt (Trehöje at Skjerne).
The Bushes is the ideological equivalent of Hof (Asbanke).
Heavens Gate is the ideological equivalent of Helgafell (Lysholt).
Robin Hoods Bower in Southleigh Wood is the ideological equivalent of Þríhyrningur (Nyhöje).

The diameter of the Cosmology in England is 216.000 feet.

The English system is measured in exactly the same way as the Icelandic one. The diameter of the cycle is 216.000 feet and the radius is 108.000 feet. Sunrise and the altitude of the sun is different because the summer is longer in Somerset than in Iceland.

The markers of the cycle and the cube in Paris, France
According to the Icelandic parallels in the old cosmology in France. Ramboullet was Þrídrangur, Abbey de Royal des Champs was Bergþórshvoll, Abbey des Chaalis was Stöng, Belle Croix was Dagmálafjall and Vigny was Skálholt. St. Denis cathedral is the ideological symbol of Steinkross, the center of the cosmology of the Paris area. The city of Paris was built inside the “Cube of Creation” in the first millennium A.D. and the ancient reference points of the great cycle on the banks of the river Signe weres lost. By establishing the residence of the kingdom of France in the new palace of Versailles, the aristocracy may have attempted to restore the world of ancient cosmology and the old science of proportions, but the revolution of 1789 wiped out most of the aristocracy's symbolism.
Comparing myths, numerology and location of palaces in and around Paris, the parallels to the cosmology of Rangárhverfi, Iceland appear and the great cycle becomes visible with all the proportions and distances conected to the stars as is to be expected from the Icelandic cosmology. But here is not a delta area. All the same, here is a wide plain with the river Signe winding through it as the great river makes its way to the sea. The cornerstone, the forsight, the Þrídrangur of the great cycle is the famous Ramboullet castle. The characteristics of that symbol of the ancient Paris cosmology is very appropriate, the castle was originally built as a triangle with three towers! The southwest -northeast axis runs through the primeval mound of Abbey de Royal des Champs as well as the mound of Versailles and on through the center at St. Denis and on until the line intersects the cycle in the woods of Abbey des Chaalis, the symbol of harvest on the cycle. The measuring point of the southeast line is to be found in a wooded area in a Paris suburb called Belle Croix, the symbol of dawn, Advent in Christianity is to be expected there. From there a line is drawn through the center at St. Denis, and on north-west until it intersects the cycle at the old cathedral at Vigny -the spring equinox on the Paris sundial.
Ideological parallels of the cycle in Paris to the cycle in Iceland, Denmark and England;
Ramboullet is the ideological equivalent of Þrídrangur (Mandö, Burrows Mump).
Abbey de Royal des Champs is the ideological equivalent of Berþórshvoll (Ribe, Glastonbury).
Abbey des Chaalis, the symbol of harvest, is the ideological equivalent of Stöng (Arhus, Avebury).
Belle Croix is the ideological equivalent of Goðasteinn (Fröbjerg, Old Sarum).
Vigny is the ideological equivalent of Skálholt (Trehöje at Skjerne, Bristol).
Porte de Cloud is the ideological equivalent of Hof (Asbanke, The Bushes).
Observatory is the ideological equivalent of Helgafell (Lysholt, Heavens Gate).
St. Vincennes is the ideological equivalent of Þríhyrningur (Nyhöje, Robin Hoods Bower).
St. Denis is the ideological equivalent of Steinkross (Jelling, The Devils Bed and Bolster).

The diameter of the Cosmology of France is 216.000 feet.

The markers of the cycle and the cube in St Peters Basilica in Rome
Rome stands on the wide Tiber delta. The early pagan settlers of this fertile land welcomed the coming of spring as the sun reached a certain latitude between Janiculum Hill and Mario Hill in the northwest sector of the great cycle, where they erected a temple dedicated to the godess Cibele, god of fertility of the Earth. Where early Christians, later, erected the Basilica of St. Peter, the greatest bastion of the Christian faith. Within the walls of that great church are the symbols of food gathering of primitive man and his old religion, tied to their appropriate cosmological proportions. But this cycle is much smaller than the Icelandic one and there is no delta inside the Basilica but nevertheless this is the primal land of the Christian people in the scale of 1:1 as compared to the Icelandic cosmology. According to the great cycle in Rangárhverfi the symbol of Þrídrangur, the cornerstone, is in the south-west corner of the church. From there the south-west, north-east line runs through the south-west column, one of four great columns that hold up the greatest cupola in the world. The main symbol of the south-west column is a 10 meter high image of St. Veronica. The line runs on through the center, the crypt, the cube of creation in front of the Popes altar and on to the place where the line intersects the cycle in the column of St. Longinus in the north-east, the symbol of harvest, the wafer of Holy Communion in Christianity. The marking point in the south-east sector is the column of Advent, with a 10 meter high image of St. Andrew. From there a line passes through the center, the crypt in front of the altar, to the north-west until it intersects the cycle in the column of Miracles, with St. Helen as the main symbol.

Ideological parallels of the cycle in St. Peters Basilica to Iceland, Denmark, England and France; The symbol of Þrídrangur in St. Peters is placed where it is expected according to discoveries in Iceland. (Mandö, Burrows Mump, Ramboullet).
The ideological parallel to Bergþórshvoll is the column of St.Veronica, symbol of New Religion (Ribe, Glastonbury, Abbey de Royal des Champs).
The ideological parallel to Stöng is the column of St. Longinus, symbol of Harvest (Arhus, Avebury, Abbey des Chaalis).
The ideological parallel to Dagmálafjall is the column of St. Andrew, symbol of Advent (Fröbjerg, Old Sarum, Belle Croix).
The ideological parallel to Skálholt is the column of St. Helen, symbol of Miracles (Trehöje at Skjerne, Bristol, Vigny).
The crypt in front of the altar is the “cube of creation”. It is surrounded by a balustrade.

The system in St. Peters is measured exactly like the Icelandic one but it is a thousand times smaller. The diameter of the cycle is 216 feet, the radius is 108 feet and sunrise is symbolised by the cross.

The diameter of the Cosmology in St. Peters, Rome is 216 feet.

The markers of the cycle and the Cube in Egypt
We proceed to Egypt, to look at the symbolisim of the Pharaohs. We survey the fertile land of the Nile delta and compare history, numerology and placement of towns and places and the cycle is revealed with the same proportional distances within the cosmology as is to be expected from Icelandic descoveries. But this cycle is measured with different measuring units than we are used to. The measuring unit is not a human foot but a minute of a degree of Earths circumference.
The cornerstone, Þrídrangur, is to be expected in the hills in the desert outside the south-west sector of the cycle. From there, the south-west, north-east line runs through the Primeval Hill, the Anba Samwill monastery, -on through the center at Memphis and on to a place on the cycle where the lines intersect near Port Said, close to the ruins of Tanis. There we can expect the symbol of harvest. The measuring point of the south-east radius is another ancient monastery in the mountain range south-east of Cairo, attributed to St. Paul. From there a line is drawn through the center at Memphis and on north-west until it intersects the cycle at Alexandria, where early Christians chose to erect their first church in Egypt. To primitive man, the symbolic meaning of this place on the great sundial was the spring equinox. That is why the surveyors of the Pharaohs built a great tower of light over the old harbor in Alexandria, today it is called the seventh wonder of the world because of its size. This huge tower with a living flame on top was the symbol of a new summer -a new sun over the Nile delta, its symbolic meaning pointed towards the sacred center at Memphis not towards sea.

Ideological parallels of the cycle in Egypt to Iceland, Denmark, England, France and St. Peters; The symbol of Þrídrangur will be found in the hills south-west of Anba Samwill (Mandö, Burrows Mump, Ramboullet, south-west corner of St. Peters in Rome).
The monastery of Anba Samwill is the ideological equivalent of Bergþórshvoll (Ribe, Glastonbury, Abbey de Royal des Champs, the column of St. Veronica in St. Peters).
Tanis is the ideological equivalent of Stöng, symbol of harvest (Arhus, Avebury, Abbey des Chaalis, the St. Longinus column in St. Peters).
The monastery of St. Paul is the ideological equivalent of Goðasteinn (Fröbjerg, Old Sarum, Belle Croix, the column of St. Andrew in St. Peters).
Alexandria is the ideological equivalent of Skálholt (Trehöje at Skjerne, Bristol, Vigny, the column of St. Helen in St. Peters).
Heilopolis is the ideological equivalent of Hof (Asbanke, The Bushes, Porte de Cloud, the western pillar in the balustrade around the crypt in St. Peters)
A marker on the island of Warraq el Hadr is the ideological equivalent of Helgafell (Lysholt, Heavens Gate, Observatory, the center pillar in the balustrade around the crypt in St. Peters).
The pyramids at Giza are the ideological equivalent of Þríhyrningur (Nyhöje, Robin Hoods Bower, St. Vincennes, the eastern pillar in the balustrade around the crypt in St. Peters).
Memphis is the ideological equivalent of Steinkross (Jelling, The Devils Bed and Bolster, St. Denis, the center pillar on the north side of the balustrade around the crypt in St. Peters).
The Egyptian system is measured exactly like the Icelandic one but the units of measure are different. Instead of a foot they used a minute of a degree of Earths circumference. The diameter of the circle is 216 minutes and the radius is 108 minutes. Sunrise and the altitude of the sun is different because the summer is longer in Egypt than in Iceland.

The diameter of the Cosmology in Egypt is 216 minutes.

Epilogue
It is important to point out that this is an artists observation of concepts regarding proportions and symbols in ancient culture. All over the world I found similar cosmology as Mr. Pásson found in Rangárhverfi. They were apparently based on the same numerology and measurement system: 27 (3 x 3 x 3) -54 -108 - 216 - 432. –and the number of a cycle 360. As mentioned above these numbers are consistent with the great ages of the Hindus concerning the destruction and rebirth of the world. They also seem to be the numbers of the pattern which dictates life in this solar system. At this point a hypothesis is unavoidable:
The cosmology of early man was a surveyed cycle in the proportions of Earths ecliptic around the sun. It’s diameter was the ideological day’s walk, (12 hrs.), of a healthy man on a flat surfaced sphere the size of planet Earth. In the center of the surveyed cosmology was a square in the proportional size of planet Earth incorporated into the horizon of a 6 foot tall man standing on a sphere the size of planet Earth.

The picture of the mind
It seems that the built in proportions that govern the conditions of life in this solar system are living in man´s consciousness. When primitive man cultivates unknown territory, he implements those proportions symbolically on to the land by surveying it and his cosmology becomes the conceptual image of the solar system in its proportional size. In this way when man breaths life into the land, he is taming it in his mind and his habitat becomes his cosmology in the proportional size of Earth and its orbit around the sun, with the sun as it’s center.
In this conception, the foot, Man´s monogram on Earth, is the symbolical size of the sun, the life giver. The circumstancial topography at each location determines wether the foot is a hundred or a thousand fold. In Iceland the scale is 1000:1 in St. Peters in Rome the scale is 1:1. Hence, in man’s habitat in Rangárhverfi the size of the sun is the foot thousandfold, 297 m. Inside St. Peters, Rome, the size of the sun is one foot, 29,70 cm. In the Icelandic subjective model the sun soars over Steinkross with a diameter of 1000 feet (297m). Earth, its size 9 feet (2.75 m) in diameter, orbits the sun on the edge of the cosmology, at the limit of habitable space around the sun, at a distance of 108 (000) sun´s from the center. On its course the Earth soares past the peak of Goðasteinn, over the dooryard of Bergþórshvoll, past the tower of Skálholt and over the dooryard infront of the ancient farmstead Stöng.

In the Danish hypothetical model the sun soars over Jelling with a diameter of 2000 feet (594 m) Earth, its size 18 feet (5.50 m) in diameter, orbits the sun on the edge of the cosmology, at the limit of habitable space around the sun, at a distance of 216 (000) suns from the center. On its course the Earth soares past Fröbjerg hill at Odense, past the tower of Ribe cathedral at Ribe, the oldest village of Denmark, past Trehöje near Skjerne and past the tower of Arhus cathedral.

In the hypothetical model of Sumerset, England, the sun soars over the stonebarow Devils Bed and Bolster with a diameter of 1000 feet (297m). Earth, its size 9 feet (2.75 m) in diameter, orbits the sun on the edge of the cosmology, at the limit of habitable space around the sun in Somerset, at a distance of 108 (000) sun´s from the center. On its course the Earth orbits over The Old Sarum, past the tower on Clastonbury Tor, past the tower of Bristol Cathedral and over the famous stonering Avebury.

In the hypothetical solar system of Paris, the sun soars over St. Denis Carthedral with a diameter of 1000 feet (297m). Earth, its size 9 feet (2.75 m) in diameter, orbits the sun on the edge of the cosmology, at the limit of habitable space around the sun, at a distance of 108 (000) sun´s from the center. On its course the Earth orbits over the the ruins of Belle Croix, over the mound of Abbey de Royal des Champs, past the tower of the Vigny Cathedral and over the ruins of Abbey des Chaalis.

In the hypothetical solarsystem inside the Basilica, the sun soars over the crypt in front of the Pope´s altar, its size is 1 foot (29,69cm) in diameter. Earth orbits the sun on the edge of the cosmology at the limit of habitable space around the sun, at a distance of 108 feet (16.05m) its size; 2.7 mm in diameter. In this conceptual model the Earth circles behinde the heads of the four saints; Andrew, Veronica, Longinus and Helen.The system in St. Peter´s is measured exactly like the Icelandic one but it is a thousand times smaller. The diameter of the cycle is 216 feet, the radius is 108 feet and sunrise is symbolised by the cross.

In the hypothetical solar system of Egypt, the sun soars over Memphis, in its hipothetical size of one minute of a degree of Earths circumference, 6000 feet (1.830m) in diameter. The Earth is 27.6 feet (8.2 m) in diameter. It revolves around the sun at a distance of 108 minutes (196 km). Earth circles over the remote mountain monastery southeast of Cairo, attributed to St. Paul, over the monastery of Anba Samwill, over the old harbour of Alexandria and over the ruins of Tanis.

With the coming of Christianity, pagan science was either dressed up as Christian science, destroyed or concealed, thus creating a flora of allegory, symbology and mystery about moral concepts and the size of the world.

The number of cycle, 360 and the Mile
It takes approximately 24 hours for Earth to rotate once on its axis, therefore the sun is visible from Earth approximately 12 hours a day, half the duration of each cycle. The number of a cycle 360, is approximately the number of days it takes Earth to rotate once around the Sun. The size of the Sun, as seen from Earth, is about half a degree of the horizon. Because of Earth´s movement on it´s orbit, the sun appears to move eastwards twice it´s width every day or, 1/360 of the sky. 360 is easy to use as the number of a cycle as it can be divided by all the first 12 numbers except 7 and 11. It is also the lowest number that can be divided by 10, 20, 30, 40, 60 and 90. The oldest known written sources of a cycle dividet into 360 parts (degrees) is from around 3000 B.C. when Egyptians began to use a 360 day year and seafarers started to use the mile as a measuring unit. To day a nautical mile is still in use for measuring air distance on the surface of Earth. But to make matters a bit more complicated there are infact 3 different miles to consider; First there is the international nautical mile which by international standard is: 6.080.2 English feet (0,3048 m ) or 1/60 of a degree -1.852m 15. There is allso an English mile of: 5.280 English feet -1,609,3 m. And thirdly the standard mile of 5.280 feet of 29.69 m. -or 1.567,63 m.
Fascinating correlations pertaining to proportions in ancient cosmology and the numbers of Creation appear when distances and measurments are converted to miles:
The sun´s diameter is 864.000 English miles (216.000 x 4).
Earth´s distance from the sun is 108 sun´s diameters (216 / 2).
Earth´s Polar circumference is 40.003,200 km or 21.600 nautical miles (216 x100).
The moons diameter is 2.160 English miles (216 x 10).
The basic measurment of time on Earth: One mean solar day is 86.400 seconds (21.600 x 4).
The speed of light: 432 x 432 = 186.624 miles 16 *.
The axis of Earth has a 23.5 degree tilt in relation to its elliptical path. The tilting axis moves a whole circle in 25.920 years (432 x 60). This means that earth is in each house of the Zodiac for 2160 years (216 x10).
This rythm of movement, proportional sizes and distances between the planets in our solar system, provide for the chemical structure, weight and thermal conditions of Earth and conditions for life as we know it.

In the comprehensive mathematics of ancient Egyptian science the timing of the marching distance men were capable of, was a known fact. For instance the measuring unit Stadium (184.677m) corresponds to a double minute of a march, implying that a man makes a step of 5 feet in a scond, or 216.000 feet in 12 hours, half the rotation of planet Earth (P.H.).
Man’s cosmology was a cycle measured from a center with an ideological diameter of a one day´s walk at summer solstice or 216.000 feet (64, 2 km). By the center was the concept of a cube, much like the altar in a modern church. The pagan altar seems to have ben a subjective symbol of Earth and its flora. The size of the altar was 36.500 feet each side or 1/10 of a degree. The cube of the altar seems to have ben a symbol of Earth in its proportional size 1: 3600 of it’s circumference. Within the cube was an area where the kings peace was in force in medieval England, an area in which attacks on private persons were crimes against the Crown. The cube was the symbol of Earth and it was sacred.

The diameter of the Egyptian cosmology was not just 216 measuring units, but 216 minutes ot Earths circumference. The measurement of the cube in the center of the cosmology was not just a practical size of a piece of land, it was 1:3600 of Earth’s circumferance, precisely measured down to a corn of barley as stated in the the 1100 year old law manuscripts of the King of England.

Proportions in mans cosmology as well as classic forms of art history like the “golden section” are based on proportions of the human body. The primitive mind was not in possession of the science needed to measure the correct circumference of Earth or the distance to the sun. This knowledge seems to be inherent in man and attached to the proportions of the body of man, the proportions of Earth and the course of the heavenly bodies, like the rythm of his heart, like instinctive energy.
Early man´s endless strive for food gathering made the symbolic place of spring equinox on the sundial, a sacred place. There, when the sun rose at a certain spot on the sundial, was the promise of summer, new growth and new harvest. It became a place of religious practice of celebration of Earths abundance of food and a place to worship the sun. Great religious buildings were erected there such as the huge light tower in Alexandria, hailed as the seventh wonder of the world, -the great Basilica of St.Peters in Rome -and the first church erected in Iceland, St.Peters, where the episcopal seat of the nation is, a place now called Skálholt.

*In Einstein's equation, E-energy / m- matter, and c =the universal constant speed of light. The speed of light is generally accepted to be 186.291 miles per second in a vacuum. However, the square of the number 432 is 186.624. If the universal constant speed of light were in fact 186,624, then the number 432 would be the square root of the speed of light. The deviation is small enough to be be accounted for by several possibilities: 1. Variation in our understanding of the length of the "mile", i.e. 5280 feet. 2. Known anomalies in the theory of general relativity. (See Di Herculis) 16.

References

1. Einar Pálsson, Ás, Mímir. Reykjavík 1976, Chapter 7.
2. National Geographic, N.G. Society. Washington D.C. júlí 1981, p. 2A.
3. Einar Pálsson, Steinkross, Mímir. Reykjavík 1976, p. 160.
4. Livio Catullo Stechini í Peter Tompkins, Secerets of the great Pyramid, Harper and Row. London 1971, p. 291.
5. Einar Pálsson, Steinkross, Mímir. Reykjavík 1976, s. 253.
6. Livio Catullo Stechini í Peter Tompkins, Secerets of the great Pyramid, Harper and Row. London 1971, p. 342.
7. Livio Catullo Stechini í Peter Tompkins, Secerets of the great Pyramid, Harper and Row. London 1971, p. 297.
8. Ian Stewart, Natures Numbers, Phoenix. London 1995, p. 24.
9. Livio Catullo Stechini í Peter Tompkins, Secerets of the great Pyramid, Harper and Row. London 1971, p. 293.
10. Livio Catullo Stechini í Peter Tompkins, Secerets of the great Pyramid, Harper and Row. London 1971, p. 337.
11. Livio Catullo Stechini í Peter Tompkins, Secerets of the great Pyramid, Harper and Row. London 1971, p. 344.
12. Bligh Bond and Lea, Gematria, Chameleon Press Ltd. London 1977, p. 26.29.
13. Livio Catullo Stechini í Peter Tompkins, Secerets of the great Pyramid, Harper and Row. London 1971, p. 314.
14. Einar Pálsson, Reið, Mímir. Reykjavík 1978, p. 29.
15. Britanica World Language, E.B. Inc. Chicago. 1964, p..807.
16. Tim Hunkler http://www.wordmax.com/gallery432/432meas.htm